Academic Journals

Adipose derived stem cell transplantation is better than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in treating hindlimb ischemia in mice

The Behavior Analyst - Sun, 09/29/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Introduction:

Bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) and adipose derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) are among the types of stem cells most commonly studied. Our study aims to compare the therapeutic efficacy of allograft AD-MSCs versus BM-MSCs in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia.

Methods:

AD-MSCs were isolated from belly fat and BM-MSCs were isolated from femur bone marrow. They were used to treat mice with acute hindlimb ischemia. Treatment efficacy was compared among 4 groups: injected with BM-MSCs, injected with AD-MSCs, non-treated and injected with phosphate buffered saline. Mice in the groups were evaluated for the following: necrosis grade of leg, leg edema, blood flow, muscle cell restructure and new blood vessel formation.

Results:

Results showed that AD-MSC transplantation significantly recovered acute limb ischemia, with 76.5% of mice fully recovered, while the ratio was only 48.5% in BM-MSC transplanted group, and 0% in the non-treated and PBS groups. Evaluation of leg edema, blood flow, muscle cell restructure and new blood vessel formation also supported the observation that AD-MSC transplantation was superior over BM-MSC transplantation.

Conclusion:

Therefore, AD-MSCs may serve as the more suitable MSC for hindlimb ischemia treatment and angiogenesis therapy.

Categories: Academic Journals

Adipose derived stem cell transplantation is better than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in treating hindlimb ischemia in mice

The Psychological Record - Sun, 09/29/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Introduction:

Bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) and adipose derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) are among the types of stem cells most commonly studied. Our study aims to compare the therapeutic efficacy of allograft AD-MSCs versus BM-MSCs in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia.

Methods:

AD-MSCs were isolated from belly fat and BM-MSCs were isolated from femur bone marrow. They were used to treat mice with acute hindlimb ischemia. Treatment efficacy was compared among 4 groups: injected with BM-MSCs, injected with AD-MSCs, non-treated and injected with phosphate buffered saline. Mice in the groups were evaluated for the following: necrosis grade of leg, leg edema, blood flow, muscle cell restructure and new blood vessel formation.

Results:

Results showed that AD-MSC transplantation significantly recovered acute limb ischemia, with 76.5% of mice fully recovered, while the ratio was only 48.5% in BM-MSC transplanted group, and 0% in the non-treated and PBS groups. Evaluation of leg edema, blood flow, muscle cell restructure and new blood vessel formation also supported the observation that AD-MSC transplantation was superior over BM-MSC transplantation.

Conclusion:

Therefore, AD-MSCs may serve as the more suitable MSC for hindlimb ischemia treatment and angiogenesis therapy.

Categories: Academic Journals

Raising the profile of pilot and feasibility studies in relation to the development, evaluation and implementation of patient-reported outcome measures

The Psychological Record - Sun, 12/31/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

This editorial introduces a new special series on the pilot and feasibility testing of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in the on-line open access journal Pilot and Feasibility Studies. Pilot and feasibility studies are typically implemented to address issues of uncertainty before undertaking a larger definitive study such as a randomised controlled trial or large scale survey. This editorial considers the role that such pilot and feasibility testing plays in relation to the development, evaluation and implementation of PROMs. This is often an essential element of PROM research but is typically overlooked—especially within current methodological guidance, reporting space and also debate. This editorial aims to open up a dialogue about the role of pilot and feasibility testing in relation to PROMs. It highlights some of the areas in PROMs research where these types of studies have been carried out and discusses the ways in which the PROM community may be better supported and encouraged to integrate this element of the research process into their PROM-based work.

Categories: Academic Journals

Raising the profile of pilot and feasibility studies in relation to the development, evaluation and implementation of patient-reported outcome measures

The Behavior Analyst - Sun, 12/31/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

This editorial introduces a new special series on the pilot and feasibility testing of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in the on-line open access journal Pilot and Feasibility Studies. Pilot and feasibility studies are typically implemented to address issues of uncertainty before undertaking a larger definitive study such as a randomised controlled trial or large scale survey. This editorial considers the role that such pilot and feasibility testing plays in relation to the development, evaluation and implementation of PROMs. This is often an essential element of PROM research but is typically overlooked—especially within current methodological guidance, reporting space and also debate. This editorial aims to open up a dialogue about the role of pilot and feasibility testing in relation to PROMs. It highlights some of the areas in PROMs research where these types of studies have been carried out and discusses the ways in which the PROM community may be better supported and encouraged to integrate this element of the research process into their PROM-based work.

Categories: Academic Journals

Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption: a real-life experiment

The Psychological Record - Mon, 12/25/2017 - 00:00
Abstract Background

The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were unaware of the experiment.

Methods

A cross-over design was used in which three restaurants were randomly assigned to a sequence of an intervention and control condition. In the intervention period, the vegetable portion sizes on the plates of main dishes were doubled (150 g of vegetables instead of 75 g) and the portion sizes of meat on the plates were reduced by an average of 12.5%. In the control period, the portion sizes of the main dishes were maintained as usual. In total, 1006 observations and questionnaires were included.

Results

Vegetable consumption from plates was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 115.5 g) than during the control period (M = 61.7 g). Similarly, total vegetable consumption (including side dishes) was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 178.0 g) than during the control period (M = 137.0 g). Conversely, meat consumption was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 183.1 g) than during the control period (M = 211.1 g). Satisfaction with the restaurant visit did not differ between the intervention period (M = 1.27) and control period (M = 1.35). Satisfaction with the main dish was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 1.25) than during the control period (M = 1.38), although in both cases, the scores indicated that participants remained (very) satisfied with their main dish.

Conclusions

This study showed that increasing vegetable portions in combination with decreasing meat portions (unknowingly to the consumer) increased the amount of vegetables consumed and decreased the amount of meat consumed. Furthermore, despite the changes in portion sizes, participants remained satisfied with their restaurant visit and main dish. The findings of this study suggest that modifying portion size in restaurants is an effective tool for stimulating vegetable consumption and consequently healthy and sustainable diets.

Categories: Academic Journals

Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption: a real-life experiment

The Behavior Analyst - Mon, 12/25/2017 - 00:00
Abstract Background

The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were unaware of the experiment.

Methods

A cross-over design was used in which three restaurants were randomly assigned to a sequence of an intervention and control condition. In the intervention period, the vegetable portion sizes on the plates of main dishes were doubled (150 g of vegetables instead of 75 g) and the portion sizes of meat on the plates were reduced by an average of 12.5%. In the control period, the portion sizes of the main dishes were maintained as usual. In total, 1006 observations and questionnaires were included.

Results

Vegetable consumption from plates was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 115.5 g) than during the control period (M = 61.7 g). Similarly, total vegetable consumption (including side dishes) was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 178.0 g) than during the control period (M = 137.0 g). Conversely, meat consumption was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 183.1 g) than during the control period (M = 211.1 g). Satisfaction with the restaurant visit did not differ between the intervention period (M = 1.27) and control period (M = 1.35). Satisfaction with the main dish was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 1.25) than during the control period (M = 1.38), although in both cases, the scores indicated that participants remained (very) satisfied with their main dish.

Conclusions

This study showed that increasing vegetable portions in combination with decreasing meat portions (unknowingly to the consumer) increased the amount of vegetables consumed and decreased the amount of meat consumed. Furthermore, despite the changes in portion sizes, participants remained satisfied with their restaurant visit and main dish. The findings of this study suggest that modifying portion size in restaurants is an effective tool for stimulating vegetable consumption and consequently healthy and sustainable diets.

Categories: Academic Journals

Crop 3D—a LiDAR based platform for 3D high-throughput crop phenotyping

The Psychological Record - Wed, 12/06/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

With the growing population and the reducing arable land, breeding has been considered as an effective way to solve the food crisis. As an important part in breeding, high-throughput phenotyping can accelerate the breeding process effectively. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology that is capable of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) data accurately, and has a great potential in crop phenotyping. Given that crop phenotyping based on LiDAR technology is not common in China, we developed a high-throughput crop phenotyping platform, named Crop 3D, which integrated LiDAR sensor, high-resolution camera, thermal camera and hyperspectral imager. Compared with traditional crop phenotyping techniques, Crop 3D can acquire multi-source phenotypic data in the whole crop growing period and extract plant height, plant width, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf inclination angle and other parameters for plant biology and genomics analysis. In this paper, we described the designs, functions and testing results of the Crop 3D platform, and briefly discussed the potential applications and future development of the platform in phenotyping. We concluded that platforms integrating LiDAR and traditional remote sensing techniques might be the future trend of crop high-throughput phenotyping.

Categories: Academic Journals

Crop 3D—a LiDAR based platform for 3D high-throughput crop phenotyping

The Behavior Analyst - Wed, 12/06/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

With the growing population and the reducing arable land, breeding has been considered as an effective way to solve the food crisis. As an important part in breeding, high-throughput phenotyping can accelerate the breeding process effectively. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology that is capable of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) data accurately, and has a great potential in crop phenotyping. Given that crop phenotyping based on LiDAR technology is not common in China, we developed a high-throughput crop phenotyping platform, named Crop 3D, which integrated LiDAR sensor, high-resolution camera, thermal camera and hyperspectral imager. Compared with traditional crop phenotyping techniques, Crop 3D can acquire multi-source phenotypic data in the whole crop growing period and extract plant height, plant width, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf inclination angle and other parameters for plant biology and genomics analysis. In this paper, we described the designs, functions and testing results of the Crop 3D platform, and briefly discussed the potential applications and future development of the platform in phenotyping. We concluded that platforms integrating LiDAR and traditional remote sensing techniques might be the future trend of crop high-throughput phenotyping.

Categories: Academic Journals

Photosynthesis of soybean cultivars released in different decades after grafting onto record-yield cultivars as rootstocks

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

While photosynthesis of soybean has been enhanced by breeding, it remains to be clarified whether the improvement of root function could bring a further increase of photosynthetic capacity for the development of soybean cultivars. The objective of this grafting experiment was to determine the influence of record-yield soybean cultivars, Liaodou14 (L14) and Zhonghuang35 (Z35), as rootstocks on photosynthetic traits of cultivars released in different decades. Grafting of various soybean cultivars onto L14 or Z35 rootstocks showed a higher root physiological activity, which resulted in significant increases in some photosynthetic traits at the late grain-filling stage compared with the non-grafted and self-grafted plants. The genetic gain for some photosynthetic traits of cultivars released from 1966 to 2006 increased by using L14 and Z35 as rootstocks. It suggested that the photosynthetic traits of the recently released cultivars could increase more if their root functions are improved.

Categories: Academic Journals

Photosynthetic apparatus activity in relation to high and low contents of cell wall-bound phenolics in triticale under drought stress

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

Cell wall-bound phenolics (CWP) play an important role in the mechanisms of plant acclimation to soil drought. The study involved CWP analyses in 50 strains and 50 doubled haploid (DH) lines of winter triticale exposed to drought at their vegetative and generative stages. CWP in the plants experiencing drought at the generative stage positively correlated with their leaf water contents. The strains and DH lines characterized by high content of CWP showed higher leaf water content and higher activity of photosynthetic apparatus when exposed to drought at the generative stage compared to the strains and DH lines with the low CWP content. Furthermore, when drought subsided at the generative stage, the strains and DH lines richer in CWP demonstrated higher regeneration potential and their grain yield loss was smaller.

Categories: Academic Journals

Photosynthetic response of four fern species from different habitats to drought stress: relationship between morpho-anatomical and physiological traits

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

Ferns flourish in many habitats, from epiphytic to terrestrial and from sunny to shady, and such varied conditions require contrasting photosynthetic strategies to cope with drought. Four species of temperate ferns from different habitats were subjected to drought by withholding irrigation in order to investigate their photosynthetic responses. Lepisorus thunbergianus (epiphytic) had low stomatal density and showed high water-use efficiency (WUE) retaining photosynthetic activity with low relative frond water content under drought stress, which suggested their high adaptation to drought. On the other hand, low WUE with low light-saturated photosynthetic rate in Adiantum pedatum (terrestrial, shady environment) was associated with much lower photosynthesis than in the other species under drought stress, suggesting lower adaptation to drought-prone habitats. Morphological stomatal traits such as stomatal density and photosynthetic response to drought in ferns involved species-specific adaptation to survive and grow in their natural habitats with different levels of drought.

Categories: Academic Journals

Feasibility of using smart phones to estimate chlorophyll content in corn plants

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

New spectral absorption photometry methods are introduced to estimate chlorophyll (Chl) content of corn leaves by smart phones. The first method acquires light passing through a leaf by smartphone camera, compensating for differences in illumination conditions. In order to improve performance of the method, spectral absorption photometry (SAP) with background illumination has been considered as well. Data were acquired by smartphone camera in Iowa State University maize fields. Various indices were extracted and their correlation with Chl content were examined by Minolta SPAD-502. Hue index in SAP reached R 2 value of 0.59. However, with light-aided SAP (LASAP), R 2 of 0.97 was obtained. Among traits, the vegetation index gave the most accurate indication. We can conclude that the high performance of LASAP method for estimating Chl content, leads to new opportunities offered by smart phones at much lower cost. This is a highly accurate alternative to SPAD meters for estimating Chl content nondestructively.

Categories: Academic Journals

Progesterone increases photochemical efficiency of photosystem II in wheat under heat stress by facilitating D1 protein phosphorylation

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of exogenous progesterone on photochemical efficiency of PSII and turnover of D1 protein under heat stress during the grain-filling stage. Heat stress resulted in increases of hydrogen peroxide production, malondialdehyde content, and relative electrolytic leakage in wheat leaves, but these responses were alleviated by foliar application of progesterone. Meanwhile, activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase were significantly improved in progesterone-pretreated leaves. Along with the alleviation of oxidative stress, higher abundances of STN8 and phosphorylated D1 protein and lower total D1 protein content in the PSII reactive center were observed in progesterone-pretreated leaves relative to controls. Consequently, progesterone raised the potential photochemical efficiency, actual photochemical efficiency, and electron transfer rate. These results indicate that foliar application of progesterone can effectively alleviate heat-induced PSII damage by enhancing antioxidant capability and regulating phosphorylation of D1 protein in wheat leaves.

Categories: Academic Journals

Expression of genes encoding key components of chlororespiration and cyclic electron transfer in soybean under different light qualities

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

Our present work showed that the expression of genes encoding PTOX (terminal oxidase of chlororespiration) and PGR5 (one essential component of cyclic electron transfer) were stimulated by red and blue light, but the stimulation under red light was soon reversed by subsequent far-red light. The expression levels of PTOX and PGR5 under simulated light quality conditions in line with maize–soybean relay strip intercropping (SRI) were obviously lower than those under simulated soybean monocropping (SM), since the lower red:far-red ratio under SRI. Measurements on photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters suggested a decline of assimilatory power supply and a lower nonphotochemical quenching under SRI as compared to SM. In this case, weaker PGR-dependent cyclic electron transfer and chlororespiration under SRI, suggested by lower expression levels of PGR5 and PTOX, could be considered as means of reducing excitation energy dissipation to allocate more power toward CO2 assimilation.

Categories: Academic Journals

Photosynthetic and antioxidative upregulation in drought-stressed sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.) subjected to foliar-applied salicylic acid

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

Insufficient attention has been paid to the physiological responses of sesame to drought and it is unclear if exogenous plant growth regulators are beneficial to drought-stressed sesame. Thus, a field study was conducted on seven Sesamum indicum genotypes affected by two levels of irrigation (60 and 80% depletions in available soil water) and by foliar-applied salicylic acid (SA; 0 and 0.6 mM). Water deficit led to depressions in net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, leaf area index, chlorophyll a, b, and total chlorophyll contents, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII, and plant dry matter and seed yield, despite increases in carotenoid concentration, superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase activities. SA was found beneficial in ameliorating the depressions in all of the above characteristics, indicating that it could be applied for lessening the harmful effects of the drought stress.

Categories: Academic Journals

Variations in light energy dissipation in Woodfordia fruticosa leaves during expansion

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

Young leaves of tropical trees frequently appear red in color, with the redness disappearing as the leaves mature. During leaf expansion, plants may employ photoprotective mechanisms to cope with high light intensities; however, the variations in anthocyanin contents, nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), and photorespiration during leaf expansion are poorly understood. Here, we investigated pigment contents, gas exchange, and chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence in Woodfordia fruticosa leaves during their expansion. Young red leaves had significantly lower Chl content than that of expanding or mature leaves, but they accumulated significantly higher anthocyanins and dissipated more excited light energy through NPQ. As the leaves matured, net photosynthetic rate, total electron flow through PSII, and electron flow for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenation gradually increased. Our results provided evidence that photorespiration is of fundamental importance in regulating the photosynthetic electron flow and CO2 assimilation during leaf expansion.

Categories: Academic Journals

Inhibition of root respiration induces leaf senescence in Alhagi sparsifolia

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

Leaf senescence can be induced by numerous factors. In order to explore the relationship between root respiration and leaf senescence, we utilized different types of phloem girdling to control the root respiration of Alhagi sparsifolia and its physiological response. Our results showed that both girdling and inhibition of root respiration led to a decline of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, carotenoid (Car) content, Chl a/b, Chl/Car, water potential, and Chl a fluorescence, as well as to an increase of abscisic acid (ABA), proline, and malondialdehyde content in leaves and to upregulation of senescence-associated gene expression. Our present work implied that both inhibition of root respiration and girdling can induce leaf senescence. In comparison with phloem girdling, the leaf senescence caused by inhibition of root respiration was less significant. The reason for girdling-induced senescence was ABA and carbohydrate accumulation. Senescence induced by inhibition of root respiration occurred due to leaf water stress resulting from inhibition of water absorption.

Categories: Academic Journals

Underestimated chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements on Buxus microphylla red winter leaves

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

Leaves under stressful conditions usually show downregulated maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II [inferred from variable to maximum chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence (Fv/Fm), usually lower than 0.8], indicating photoinhibition. The usual method to evaluate the degree of photoinhibition in winter red leaves is generally by measuring the Fv/Fm on the red adaxial surface. Two phenotypes of overwintering Buxus microphylla ‘Wintergreen’ red leaves, with different measuring site and leaf thickness, were investigated in order to elucidate how red pigments in the outer leaf layer affected the Chl a fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and photochemical reflectance index. Our results showed that the Fv/Fm measured on leaves with the same red surface, but different leaf thickness, exhibited a slightly lower value in half leaf (separated upper and lower layers of leaves by removing the leaf edge similarly as affected by winter freezing and thawing) than that in the intact leaf (without removing the leaf edge), and the Fv/Fm measured on the red surface was significantly lower than that on the inner or backlighted green surface of the same thickness. Our results suggest that the usual measurement of Fv/Fm on red adaxial surface overestimates the actual degree of photoinhibition compared with that of the whole leaf in the winter.

Categories: Academic Journals

Leaf trait plasticity in six forest tree species of central Amazonia

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

Tropical rainforest trees adjust leaf traits during ontogeny to cope with changes in the physical environment and maximize their carbon uptake. The aim of this study was to determine the plasticity index (PI) of leaf traits in understory and canopy leaves of six Amazonian tree species. In four of the six species the PI of leaf traits varied within species, and in four of the ten leaf traits assessed, the PI differed between species. The greatest PI values were found for stomatal density (Ds) and CO2-saturated photosynthesis, and the lowest ones were found for stomatal size, and leaf thickness. Despite the differences in PI values within species, the mean PI was similar in all the six species. As the saplings grow toward the canopy, the strategy to increase carbon uptake involves increasing Ds and leaf nitrogen and reducing stomatal size.

Categories: Academic Journals

Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging can reflect development of vascular connection in grafting union in some Solanaceae species

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

Graft union development in plants has been studied mainly by destructive methods such as histological studies. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging (CFI) technique is sensitive enough to reflect changes at the cellular level in different Solanaceae grafted plants 30 d after grafting, when both grafted partners were well fused and strong enough in all plant combinations. The pepper cultivar ‘Adige’ was grafted onto different Capsicum spp. accessions typified with different compatibility degrees; eggplant was grafted on Solanum torvum and pepper homografts as compatible unions; pepper was grafted on S. torvum and on tomato as incompatible unions. ‘Adige’/’Adige’ and ‘Adige’/pepper A25 showed a higher maximum quantum efficiency of PSII associated with higher values of actual quantum efficiency of PSII and photochemical quenching as well as with vascular regeneration across the graft interface. Our results highlighted that CFI changes reflected histological observations in grafted Solanaceae plants.

Categories: Academic Journals

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