Academic Journals

Adipose derived stem cell transplantation is better than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in treating hindlimb ischemia in mice

The Behavior Analyst - Sun, 09/29/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Introduction:

Bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) and adipose derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) are among the types of stem cells most commonly studied. Our study aims to compare the therapeutic efficacy of allograft AD-MSCs versus BM-MSCs in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia.

Methods:

AD-MSCs were isolated from belly fat and BM-MSCs were isolated from femur bone marrow. They were used to treat mice with acute hindlimb ischemia. Treatment efficacy was compared among 4 groups: injected with BM-MSCs, injected with AD-MSCs, non-treated and injected with phosphate buffered saline. Mice in the groups were evaluated for the following: necrosis grade of leg, leg edema, blood flow, muscle cell restructure and new blood vessel formation.

Results:

Results showed that AD-MSC transplantation significantly recovered acute limb ischemia, with 76.5% of mice fully recovered, while the ratio was only 48.5% in BM-MSC transplanted group, and 0% in the non-treated and PBS groups. Evaluation of leg edema, blood flow, muscle cell restructure and new blood vessel formation also supported the observation that AD-MSC transplantation was superior over BM-MSC transplantation.

Conclusion:

Therefore, AD-MSCs may serve as the more suitable MSC for hindlimb ischemia treatment and angiogenesis therapy.

Categories: Academic Journals

Adipose derived stem cell transplantation is better than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in treating hindlimb ischemia in mice

The Psychological Record - Sun, 09/29/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Introduction:

Bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) and adipose derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) are among the types of stem cells most commonly studied. Our study aims to compare the therapeutic efficacy of allograft AD-MSCs versus BM-MSCs in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia.

Methods:

AD-MSCs were isolated from belly fat and BM-MSCs were isolated from femur bone marrow. They were used to treat mice with acute hindlimb ischemia. Treatment efficacy was compared among 4 groups: injected with BM-MSCs, injected with AD-MSCs, non-treated and injected with phosphate buffered saline. Mice in the groups were evaluated for the following: necrosis grade of leg, leg edema, blood flow, muscle cell restructure and new blood vessel formation.

Results:

Results showed that AD-MSC transplantation significantly recovered acute limb ischemia, with 76.5% of mice fully recovered, while the ratio was only 48.5% in BM-MSC transplanted group, and 0% in the non-treated and PBS groups. Evaluation of leg edema, blood flow, muscle cell restructure and new blood vessel formation also supported the observation that AD-MSC transplantation was superior over BM-MSC transplantation.

Conclusion:

Therefore, AD-MSCs may serve as the more suitable MSC for hindlimb ischemia treatment and angiogenesis therapy.

Categories: Academic Journals

Raising the profile of pilot and feasibility studies in relation to the development, evaluation and implementation of patient-reported outcome measures

The Psychological Record - Sun, 12/31/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

This editorial introduces a new special series on the pilot and feasibility testing of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in the on-line open access journal Pilot and Feasibility Studies. Pilot and feasibility studies are typically implemented to address issues of uncertainty before undertaking a larger definitive study such as a randomised controlled trial or large scale survey. This editorial considers the role that such pilot and feasibility testing plays in relation to the development, evaluation and implementation of PROMs. This is often an essential element of PROM research but is typically overlooked—especially within current methodological guidance, reporting space and also debate. This editorial aims to open up a dialogue about the role of pilot and feasibility testing in relation to PROMs. It highlights some of the areas in PROMs research where these types of studies have been carried out and discusses the ways in which the PROM community may be better supported and encouraged to integrate this element of the research process into their PROM-based work.

Categories: Academic Journals

Raising the profile of pilot and feasibility studies in relation to the development, evaluation and implementation of patient-reported outcome measures

The Behavior Analyst - Sun, 12/31/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

This editorial introduces a new special series on the pilot and feasibility testing of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in the on-line open access journal Pilot and Feasibility Studies. Pilot and feasibility studies are typically implemented to address issues of uncertainty before undertaking a larger definitive study such as a randomised controlled trial or large scale survey. This editorial considers the role that such pilot and feasibility testing plays in relation to the development, evaluation and implementation of PROMs. This is often an essential element of PROM research but is typically overlooked—especially within current methodological guidance, reporting space and also debate. This editorial aims to open up a dialogue about the role of pilot and feasibility testing in relation to PROMs. It highlights some of the areas in PROMs research where these types of studies have been carried out and discusses the ways in which the PROM community may be better supported and encouraged to integrate this element of the research process into their PROM-based work.

Categories: Academic Journals

Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption: a real-life experiment

The Psychological Record - Mon, 12/25/2017 - 00:00
Abstract Background

The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were unaware of the experiment.

Methods

A cross-over design was used in which three restaurants were randomly assigned to a sequence of an intervention and control condition. In the intervention period, the vegetable portion sizes on the plates of main dishes were doubled (150 g of vegetables instead of 75 g) and the portion sizes of meat on the plates were reduced by an average of 12.5%. In the control period, the portion sizes of the main dishes were maintained as usual. In total, 1006 observations and questionnaires were included.

Results

Vegetable consumption from plates was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 115.5 g) than during the control period (M = 61.7 g). Similarly, total vegetable consumption (including side dishes) was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 178.0 g) than during the control period (M = 137.0 g). Conversely, meat consumption was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 183.1 g) than during the control period (M = 211.1 g). Satisfaction with the restaurant visit did not differ between the intervention period (M = 1.27) and control period (M = 1.35). Satisfaction with the main dish was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 1.25) than during the control period (M = 1.38), although in both cases, the scores indicated that participants remained (very) satisfied with their main dish.

Conclusions

This study showed that increasing vegetable portions in combination with decreasing meat portions (unknowingly to the consumer) increased the amount of vegetables consumed and decreased the amount of meat consumed. Furthermore, despite the changes in portion sizes, participants remained satisfied with their restaurant visit and main dish. The findings of this study suggest that modifying portion size in restaurants is an effective tool for stimulating vegetable consumption and consequently healthy and sustainable diets.

Categories: Academic Journals

Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption: a real-life experiment

The Behavior Analyst - Mon, 12/25/2017 - 00:00
Abstract Background

The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were unaware of the experiment.

Methods

A cross-over design was used in which three restaurants were randomly assigned to a sequence of an intervention and control condition. In the intervention period, the vegetable portion sizes on the plates of main dishes were doubled (150 g of vegetables instead of 75 g) and the portion sizes of meat on the plates were reduced by an average of 12.5%. In the control period, the portion sizes of the main dishes were maintained as usual. In total, 1006 observations and questionnaires were included.

Results

Vegetable consumption from plates was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 115.5 g) than during the control period (M = 61.7 g). Similarly, total vegetable consumption (including side dishes) was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 178.0 g) than during the control period (M = 137.0 g). Conversely, meat consumption was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 183.1 g) than during the control period (M = 211.1 g). Satisfaction with the restaurant visit did not differ between the intervention period (M = 1.27) and control period (M = 1.35). Satisfaction with the main dish was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 1.25) than during the control period (M = 1.38), although in both cases, the scores indicated that participants remained (very) satisfied with their main dish.

Conclusions

This study showed that increasing vegetable portions in combination with decreasing meat portions (unknowingly to the consumer) increased the amount of vegetables consumed and decreased the amount of meat consumed. Furthermore, despite the changes in portion sizes, participants remained satisfied with their restaurant visit and main dish. The findings of this study suggest that modifying portion size in restaurants is an effective tool for stimulating vegetable consumption and consequently healthy and sustainable diets.

Categories: Academic Journals

Crop 3D—a LiDAR based platform for 3D high-throughput crop phenotyping

The Psychological Record - Wed, 12/06/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

With the growing population and the reducing arable land, breeding has been considered as an effective way to solve the food crisis. As an important part in breeding, high-throughput phenotyping can accelerate the breeding process effectively. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology that is capable of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) data accurately, and has a great potential in crop phenotyping. Given that crop phenotyping based on LiDAR technology is not common in China, we developed a high-throughput crop phenotyping platform, named Crop 3D, which integrated LiDAR sensor, high-resolution camera, thermal camera and hyperspectral imager. Compared with traditional crop phenotyping techniques, Crop 3D can acquire multi-source phenotypic data in the whole crop growing period and extract plant height, plant width, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf inclination angle and other parameters for plant biology and genomics analysis. In this paper, we described the designs, functions and testing results of the Crop 3D platform, and briefly discussed the potential applications and future development of the platform in phenotyping. We concluded that platforms integrating LiDAR and traditional remote sensing techniques might be the future trend of crop high-throughput phenotyping.

Categories: Academic Journals

Crop 3D—a LiDAR based platform for 3D high-throughput crop phenotyping

The Behavior Analyst - Wed, 12/06/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

With the growing population and the reducing arable land, breeding has been considered as an effective way to solve the food crisis. As an important part in breeding, high-throughput phenotyping can accelerate the breeding process effectively. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology that is capable of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) data accurately, and has a great potential in crop phenotyping. Given that crop phenotyping based on LiDAR technology is not common in China, we developed a high-throughput crop phenotyping platform, named Crop 3D, which integrated LiDAR sensor, high-resolution camera, thermal camera and hyperspectral imager. Compared with traditional crop phenotyping techniques, Crop 3D can acquire multi-source phenotypic data in the whole crop growing period and extract plant height, plant width, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf inclination angle and other parameters for plant biology and genomics analysis. In this paper, we described the designs, functions and testing results of the Crop 3D platform, and briefly discussed the potential applications and future development of the platform in phenotyping. We concluded that platforms integrating LiDAR and traditional remote sensing techniques might be the future trend of crop high-throughput phenotyping.

Categories: Academic Journals

dCompaction: Delayed Compaction for the LSM-Tree

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

Key-value (KV) stores have become a backbone of large-scale applications in today’s data centers. Write-optimized data structures like the Log-Structured Merge-tree (LSM-tree) and their variants are widely used in KV storage systems like BigTable and RocksDB. Conventional LSM-tree organizes KV items into multiple, successively larger components, and uses compaction to push KV items from one smaller component to another adjacent larger component until the KV items reach the largest component. Unfortunately, current compaction scheme incurs significant write amplification due to repeated KV item reads and writes, and then results in poor throughput. We propose a new compaction scheme, delayed compaction (dCompaction), that decreases write amplification. dCompaction postpones some compactions and gather them into the following compaction. In this way, it avoids KV item reads and writes during compaction, and consequently improves the throughput of LSM-tree based KV stores. We implement dCompaction on RocksDB, and conduct extensive experiments. Validation using YCSB framework shows that compared with RocksDB dCompaction has about 30% write performance improvements and also comparable read performance.

Categories: Academic Journals

Pathfinder: Application-Aware Distributed Path Computation in Clouds

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

Path computation in a network is dependent on the network’s processes and resource usage pattern. While distributed traffic control methods improve the scalability of a system, their topology and link state conditions may influence the sub-optimal path computation. Herein, we present Pathfinder, an application-aware distributed path computation model. The proposed model framework can improve path computation functions through software-defined network controls. In the paper, we first analyse the key issues in distributed path computation functions and then present Pathfinder’s system architecture, followed by its design principles and orchestration environment. Furthermore, we evaluate our system’s performance by comparing it with FreeFlow and Prune-Dijk techniques. Our results demonstrate that Pathfinder outperforms these two techniques and delivers significant improvement in the system’s resource utilisation behaviour.

Categories: Academic Journals

dCompaction: Delayed Compaction for the LSM-Tree

The Behavior Analyst - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

Key-value (KV) stores have become a backbone of large-scale applications in today’s data centers. Write-optimized data structures like the Log-Structured Merge-tree (LSM-tree) and their variants are widely used in KV storage systems like BigTable and RocksDB. Conventional LSM-tree organizes KV items into multiple, successively larger components, and uses compaction to push KV items from one smaller component to another adjacent larger component until the KV items reach the largest component. Unfortunately, current compaction scheme incurs significant write amplification due to repeated KV item reads and writes, and then results in poor throughput. We propose a new compaction scheme, delayed compaction (dCompaction), that decreases write amplification. dCompaction postpones some compactions and gather them into the following compaction. In this way, it avoids KV item reads and writes during compaction, and consequently improves the throughput of LSM-tree based KV stores. We implement dCompaction on RocksDB, and conduct extensive experiments. Validation using YCSB framework shows that compared with RocksDB dCompaction has about 30% write performance improvements and also comparable read performance.

Categories: Academic Journals

Pathfinder: Application-Aware Distributed Path Computation in Clouds

The Behavior Analyst - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

Path computation in a network is dependent on the network’s processes and resource usage pattern. While distributed traffic control methods improve the scalability of a system, their topology and link state conditions may influence the sub-optimal path computation. Herein, we present Pathfinder, an application-aware distributed path computation model. The proposed model framework can improve path computation functions through software-defined network controls. In the paper, we first analyse the key issues in distributed path computation functions and then present Pathfinder’s system architecture, followed by its design principles and orchestration environment. Furthermore, we evaluate our system’s performance by comparing it with FreeFlow and Prune-Dijk techniques. Our results demonstrate that Pathfinder outperforms these two techniques and delivers significant improvement in the system’s resource utilisation behaviour.

Categories: Academic Journals

A Semi-Lagrangian Scheme for a Modified Version of the Hughes’ Model for Pedestrian Flow

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

In this paper, we present a semi-Lagrangian scheme for a regularized version of the Hughes’ model for pedestrian flow. Hughes originally proposed a coupled nonlinear PDE system describing the evolution of a large pedestrian group trying to exit a domain as fast as possible. The original model corresponds to a system of a conservation law for the pedestrian density and an eikonal equation to determine the weighted distance to the exit. We consider this model in the presence of small diffusion and discuss the numerical analysis of the proposed semi-Lagrangian scheme. Furthermore, we illustrate the effect of small diffusion on the exit time with various numerical experiments.

Categories: Academic Journals

A Semi-Lagrangian Scheme for a Modified Version of the Hughes’ Model for Pedestrian Flow

The Behavior Analyst - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

In this paper, we present a semi-Lagrangian scheme for a regularized version of the Hughes’ model for pedestrian flow. Hughes originally proposed a coupled nonlinear PDE system describing the evolution of a large pedestrian group trying to exit a domain as fast as possible. The original model corresponds to a system of a conservation law for the pedestrian density and an eikonal equation to determine the weighted distance to the exit. We consider this model in the presence of small diffusion and discuss the numerical analysis of the proposed semi-Lagrangian scheme. Furthermore, we illustrate the effect of small diffusion on the exit time with various numerical experiments.

Categories: Academic Journals

Life History of Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a Blowfly of Medical and Forensic Importance

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

The life history traits of blow fly Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) was studied under semi-controlled laboratory conditions at 29.14°C temperature, 72.53% relative humidity, and 12-h photoperiod. The raw data were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table, considering the development rates among individuals of both sexes. Cochliomyia macellaria survival rate was 0.43 (♂) and 0.40 (♀), while life expectancy was 17.9 (♂) and 20.9 (♀) days, for adult males and females, respectively. The total fecundity was 681.15 eggs/female, with an average of 3.65 batches/female and 199 eggs/batch. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) was 0.327 days−1, the finite rate of population increase (λ) was 3.35 days−1, the mean generation time (T) was 17.15 days, and the net reproduction rate (R 0 ) was 272.46 offspring/individual. The population parameters found here corroborates that C. macellaria population act as a r selected species under laboratory conditions. Additionally, development data and accumulated degree days (ADD) for each stage of C. macellaria are provided and its implications for the forensic use are discussed.

Categories: Academic Journals

Life History of Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a Blowfly of Medical and Forensic Importance

The Behavior Analyst - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

The life history traits of blow fly Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) was studied under semi-controlled laboratory conditions at 29.14°C temperature, 72.53% relative humidity, and 12-h photoperiod. The raw data were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table, considering the development rates among individuals of both sexes. Cochliomyia macellaria survival rate was 0.43 (♂) and 0.40 (♀), while life expectancy was 17.9 (♂) and 20.9 (♀) days, for adult males and females, respectively. The total fecundity was 681.15 eggs/female, with an average of 3.65 batches/female and 199 eggs/batch. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) was 0.327 days−1, the finite rate of population increase (λ) was 3.35 days−1, the mean generation time (T) was 17.15 days, and the net reproduction rate (R 0 ) was 272.46 offspring/individual. The population parameters found here corroborates that C. macellaria population act as a r selected species under laboratory conditions. Additionally, development data and accumulated degree days (ADD) for each stage of C. macellaria are provided and its implications for the forensic use are discussed.

Categories: Academic Journals

A promising mechanical ball-milling method to synthesize carbon-coated Co 9 S 8 nanoparticles as high-performance electrode for supercapacitor

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

A Co9S8/C nanocomposite has been prepared using a solid-state reaction followed by a facile mechanical ball-milling treatment with sucrose as the carbon source. The phases, morphology, and detailed structures of Co9S8/C nanocomposite are well characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Our experimental results show that not only a process of particle size reduction, the ball-milling treatment also promotes the carbon and Co9S8 combining with each other more effectively to form an ultrafine nanocomposite. When used as an electrode material in supercapacitor, Co9S8/C nanocomposite exhibits a high initial specific capacitance of 756.2 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 and excellent cycling stability with 73.4% retention after 2000 cycles. Its outstanding electrochemical properties are mainly attributed to the nanosize of particles and amorphous carbon layer coating on its surface.

Categories: Academic Journals

Strongly regular graphs from classical generalized quadrangles

The Psychological Record - Fri, 12/01/2017 - 00:00
Abstract

If s is an even power of a prime and t equals s or \(s\sqrt{s}\) , we show the existence of pseudo-geometric strongly regular graphs having the same parameters of the point-graph of a GQ(st), that are not geometric.

Categories: Academic Journals

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