Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis

Subscribe to Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis feed
Wiley Online Library : Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Updated: 2 hours 53 min ago

Step it up! Using the good behavior game to increase physical activity with elementary school students at recess

Sat, 08/12/2017 - 00:45

We evaluated the effects of a modified version of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) on the number of steps taken by students during school recess. We divided a class into two teams, and awarded the team with the highest step counts at the end of each game raffle tickets for a school-wide lottery. The GBG was compared to recess periods without the game using an alternating-treatments design. Students took more steps while playing the GBG than they did during recess periods without the game.

Categories: Academic Journals

Guest Eds & Revs Acknowledgement

Mon, 07/10/2017 - 02:57
Categories: Academic Journals

Renewed behavior produced by context change and its implications for treatment maintenance: A review

Tue, 06/13/2017 - 06:15

Behavioral treatment gains established in one setting do not always maintain in other settings. The present review examines the relevance of basic and translational research to understanding failures to maintain treatment gains across settings. Specifically, studies of the renewal effect examine how transitioning away from a treatment setting could evoke a return of undesirable behavior, rather than newly trained appropriate behavior. Studies of renewal typically arrange three phases, with a response trained and reinforced under a particular set of contextual stimuli in the first phase. Next, that response is extinguished, often under a different set of contextual stimuli. Finally, that response returns despite extinction remaining in effect upon returning to the original training context or transitioning to a novel context. Thus, removing the extinction context is sufficient to produce a recurrence of the response. The findings suggest treatment effects can become specific to the context in which the treatment was delivered. This literature offers promising methods for systematically assessing the factors contributing to treatment maintenance and improving generalization of treatment gains across contexts. Therefore, the present review suggests basic and translational research on renewal provides an empirical literature to bring greater conceptual systematization to understanding generalization and maintenance of behavioral treatment.

Categories: Academic Journals

Effects of serial and concurrent training on receptive identification tasks: A Systematic replication

Thu, 06/08/2017 - 07:40

The current study compared the use of serial and concurrent methods to train multiple exemplars when teaching receptive language skills, providing a systematic replication of Wunderlich, Vollmer, Donaldson, and Phillips (2014). Five preschoolers diagnosed with developmental delays or autism spectrum disorders were taught to receptively identify letters or letter sounds. Subjects learned the target stimuli slightly faster in concurrent training and a high degree of generalization was obtained following both methods of training, indicating that both the serial and concurrent methods of training are efficient and effective instructional procedures.

Categories: Academic Journals

Data presentation options to manage variability in physical activity research

Mon, 05/29/2017 - 22:15

This paper presents seven tactics for managing the variability evident in some physical activity data. High levels of variability in daily step-count data from pedometers or accelerometers can make typical visual inspection difficult. Therefore, the purpose of the current paper is to discuss several strategies that might facilitate the visual interpretation of highly variable data. The seven strategies discussed in this paper are phase mean and median lines, daily average per week, weekly cumulative, proportion of baseline, 7-day moving average, change point detection, and confidence intervals. We apply each strategy to a data set and discuss the advantages and disadvantages.

Categories: Academic Journals

Analysis of precursors to multiply controlled problem behavior: A replication

Mon, 05/29/2017 - 22:10

We replicated Fritz, Iwata, Hammond, and Bloom (2013) by evaluating the efficacy of an experimental methodology to identify precursors to aggression displayed by an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder. Using their trial-based precursor analysis, we identified seven precursors to aggression. Next, we compared the outcomes of separate precursor and aggression functional analyses and showed that both precursors and aggression were multiply controlled by the same variables.

Categories: Academic Journals

Outcome summaries of latency-based functional analyses conducted in hospital inpatient units

Mon, 05/29/2017 - 22:10

Latency-based functional analysis (FA) may be a viable alternative to the standard, rate-based, FA when frequently evoking problem behavior is not advisable. We conducted 18 latency-based FAs of the problem behavior of children diagnosed with autism in inpatient hospital settings and identified functional relations during 44.4% (8 of 18) of latency-based FAs. Implications for conducting FAs of severe problem behavior are discussed.

Categories: Academic Journals

Incorporating multiple secondary targets into learning trials for individuals with autism spectrum disorder

Wed, 05/17/2017 - 05:36

The current study examined the outcome of presenting multiple secondary targets in learning trials for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. We compared conditions in which (a) a secondary target was presented in the antecedent and consequence of trials, (b) two secondary targets were presented in the consequence of trials, (c) one secondary target was presented in the consequence of each trial, and (d) no additional targets were presented trials. The participants acquired the majority of secondary targets. Presenting one or multiple secondary targets per trial, regardless of the location of these secondary targets, increased the efficiency of instruction in comparison to a condition with no secondary target.

Categories: Academic Journals

Using the dual-criteria methods to supplement visual inspection: An analysis of nonsimulated data

Wed, 05/17/2017 - 05:36

The purpose of our study was to examine the probability of observing false positives in nonsimulated data using the dual-criteria methods. We extracted data from published studies to produce a series of 16,927 datasets and then assessed the proportion of false positives for various phase lengths. Our results indicate that collecting at least three data points in the first phase (Phase A) and at least five data points in the second phase (Phase B) is generally sufficient to produce acceptable levels of false positives.

Categories: Academic Journals

Noncontingent reinforcement without extinction plus differential reinforcement of alternative behavior during treatment of problem behavior

Wed, 05/17/2017 - 05:36

The effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) without extinction during treatment of problem behavior maintained by social positive reinforcement were evaluated for five individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. A continuous NCR schedule was gradually thinned to a fixed-time 5-min schedule. If problem behavior increased during NCR schedule thinning, a continuous NCR schedule was reinstated and NCR schedule thinning was repeated with differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) included. Results showed an immediate decrease in all participants’ problem behavior during continuous NCR, and problem behavior maintained at low levels during NCR schedule thinning for three participants. Problem behavior increased and maintained at higher rates during NCR schedule thinning for two other participants; however, the addition of DRA to the intervention resulted in decreased problem behavior and increased mands.

Categories: Academic Journals

An analysis of procedures that affect response variability

Wed, 05/17/2017 - 05:36

Response variability is sensitive to antecedent and consequent manipulations. Researchers have investigated inducement, direct production through reinforcement, and stimulus control of response variability. Recently, researchers have shown that lag reinforcement schedules reliably increase variability but may also produce higher-order stereotypy. There has been limited investigation of appropriate variability levels and alternation between repetition and variation. In a three-part study, we evaluated levels of variability across a group of children, the effects of various procedures on producing response variability and novelty, and the use of schedule-correlated stimuli for producing rapid alternation between repetition and variation. In Study 1, there was a nearly bimodal distribution of children emitting either low or high variability. In Study 2, for most children, fixed lag 4 and variable lag 4 schedules produced the highest levels of variability and novelty. In Study 3, responding was brought under control of schedule-correlated stimuli, allowing for rapid alternation between repetition and variation.

Categories: Academic Journals

An evaluation of interdependent and independent group contingencies during the good behavior game

Sat, 05/13/2017 - 01:34

The Good Behavior Game (GBG) uses an interdependent group contingency to improve classroom behavior. Despite the wealth of research on the effectiveness of the GBG, some teachers may have concerns about their students’ abilities to work in teams, particularly if they have a history of poor social skills. We used an alternating treatments design to compare the relative effectiveness of the GBG with interdependent and independent group contingencies in a classroom for children with emotional and behavioral disorders. Our results showed that both versions of the GBG reduced verbal disruptions, inappropriate sitting, and off-task behaviors for all children. However, the majority of children preferred the interdependent arrangement. We discuss how these results may promote more widespread use of the GBG with children with substantial behavioral challenges.

Categories: Academic Journals

Toward meaningful outcomes in teaching conversation and greeting skills with individuals with autism spectrum disorder

Sat, 05/13/2017 - 01:34

We identified greeting and conversation deficits based on a parent interview and semistructured direct assessment for one child and two adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. We taught the greeting and conversation skills using behavioral skills training and within-session corrective feedback. A multiple baseline across conversation and greeting skills demonstrated experimental control over the effects of the teaching on acquisition and generalization to novel adults. We also conducted embedded reversals to assess maintenance of the acquired skills. Teaching produced robust acquisition, generalization, maintenance, and treatment extension for 15 of the 16 targeted skills across participants. Participant and parent reports indicated high levels of social validity for the intervention and outcomes. The results support individualized assessment and intervention for improving greeting and conversation skills during unscripted interactions, which are requisite for more extended and complex social interactions.

Categories: Academic Journals